Deborah McCullough

Deborah McCullough

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Professor, Forest Entomology
Department of Forestry



See a list of Deborah McCullough's publications on Google Scholar.


Our work has substantially advanced our knowledge of native and invasive forest insect ecology, impacts and management. Recent research on emerald ash borer (EAB), in particular, has contributed to understanding the population dynamics, economic and ecological impacts, and host preference of this invader. Other studies on management strategies and control options have substantially improved the outlook for landscape and urban ash trees. Results from our EAB projects have contributed to federal, state and municipal policies and decisions across much of the US, as well as Canada and Europe. 

Current assignment: Teaching 20% | Research 30% | Extension 50%

Program Description


Nearly all students in 407 plan to work in forestry or natural resource management or in arboriculture/ landscaping. This is typically the first and usually the only exposure to entomology these students encounter. My goal is to ensure students can effectively identify and distinguish between major and minor insect pests affecting trees, accurately diagnosis insect-related damage and distinguish tree problems caused by non-insect factors (pathogens, abiotic problems). I try to provide students with a solid understanding of pest management options, exposure to pros and cons of commonly used pesticides, biocontrol, silvicultural or cultural tactics, and basic IPM. I build a substantial amount of ecology (e.g., population dynamics, bottom up- and top-down regulation of herbivores, invasion ecology, climate change impacts) to provide students with the background they need to make sound decisions and develop effective strategies to protect trees or manage healthy forests. I draw on real-life examples from my research and extension experiences to challenge students to consider how politics, economics and public perception can affect forest pest management. In the ENT labs, we use a collaborative, active learning process to engage students while covering a considerable amount of information in a short time frame. We do three joint entomology-pathology field trips in spring that enable students see interactions of insects, pathogens and site conditions.

Classes taught: PLP/ENT 407 - Insects and Diseases of Forest and Shade Trees; Spring semester; 4 credits


My research, which focuses on forest insect ecology and management, runs along a continuum of relatively basic to applied studies that enhance our understanding of insect and forest ecology while generating practical information to address important problems. Most activities in recent years have involved invasive forest insects, largely because of the economic and ecological costs associated with several major insect pests. Over the past decade, I led numerous projects related to EAB, ranging from detection and survey methods, population dynamics and spread, host range and interspecific host preference, ecological and economic impacts, systemic insecticides to protect landscape trees, and strategies for area-wide EAB management. In recent years, I participated in interdisciplinary working groups to address invasion pathways, geographic distribution and economic impacts of invasive forest pests in the US, and factors related to successful invasive pest eradication, Other recent and current efforts include studies related to beech bark disease spread and impacts in Michigan and potential control options for beech scale, which is of interest to landscapers and arborists. We are also using data collected from a statewide survey for targeted exotic pests to evaluate multi-species attraction of cerambycid pheromones and species composition of woodborer communities in different forest cover types.


My extension program is highly integrated with my research on forest insect ecology and management. Nationally, I continue to provide practical advice and objective information related to EAB and invasive forest insect ecology to a wide range of groups, including federal, state and municipal resource managers, regulatory officials, private arborists and landscapers, and property owners. These activities have played a major role in changing perceptions of EAB, particularly in recently infested states and municipalities, where EAB “management” is replacing the doomsday scenarios of a few years ago. I also provide EAB-related information to scientists in Russia, the European Union and Canada. Much of this information was generated by the research conducted by my students, collaborators and myself. I continue to direct the national website, regarded as the primary source of objective EAB information. Within Michigan, I work frequently with MDARD and MDNR personnel to address issues related to invasive and native forest insects (e.g., federal and state quarantines, exotic pest surveys, silvicultural tactics to reduce pest damage). We recently began a major project that links MSU Extension foresters, risk modeling and public education to expand awareness of specific high risk pests that are likely to cause serious damage if they become established in Michigan. I also answer questions and provide management suggestions for a variety of tree-feeding insects including gypsy moth, Christmas tree pests, control of insect pests on landscape trees and silvicultural management for bark beetles, woodborers and conifer defoliators.


  • Forest insect ecology and management
  • Invasive forest insects
  • Emerald ash borer

Professional Experience

  • 2006-Present - Professor, Dept. of Entomology and Dept. of Forestry Department, Michigan State University
  • 1998-2006 - Associate Professor, Dept. of Entomology and Dept. of Forestry, Michigan State University
  • 1992-1998 - Assistant Professor, Dept. of Entomology and Dept. of Forestry, Michigan State University
  • 1991-1992 - Consultant, Jaako Poyry Consulting
  • 1990-1992 - Entomologist on assignment, NC State and private forestry, USDA Forest Service


  • 2011: USDA Forest Service, Certificate of Merit; Sustaining Forests & Grasslands
  • 2006: Distinguished Alumnus Award, School of Forestry, Northern Arizona University
  • 2005: Recognized by the Michigan Dept. of Agriculture for Outstanding Contributions to Michigan Natural Resources and Agriculture.
  • 2002: Outstanding Specialist; recognized by Michigan Association of Extension Agents.
  • 2000: Outstanding Extension Specialist; recognized by MSU Extension faculty.
  • 1996-1997: Presidents Award for Outstanding Service, Michigan Christmas Tree Association. 

Peer-reviewed research publications

  • McCullough, D.G., R.J. Mercader and N.W. Siegert. 2015. Developing and integrating tactics to slow ash mortality caused by emerald ash borer. Invited paper; Canadian Entomologist 147: 349-358.
  • Mercader, R.J., D.G. McCullough, A.J. Storer, J. Bedford, T.M. Poland and S. Katovich. 2015. Evaluation of the potential use of a systemic insecticide and girdled trees in area wide management of the emerald ash borer. Forest Ecology and Management 350: 70-80.
  • Siegert, N.W., R.J. Mercader and D.G. McCullough. 2015. Spread and dispersal of emerald ash borer: estimating the spatial dynamics of a difficult-to-detect invasive forest pest. Invited paper; Canadian Entomologist 147: 338-348.
  • Tanis, S.R., D.G. McCullough and Bert M. Cregg. 2015. Effects of paclobutrazol and fertilizer on the physiology, growth and biomass allocation of three Fraxinus species. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 14: 590-598.
  • Tanis, S.R. and D.G. McCullough. 2015. Host resistance of five Fraxinus species to Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and effects of paclobutrazol and fertilization. Environmental Entomology. In press.
  • Burr, S.J. and D.G. McCullough. 2014. Condition of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) overstory and regeneration at three stages of the emerald ash borer invasion wave. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 44: 768-776. Herms, D.A. and D.G. McCullough. 2014. The emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts and management. Annual Review of Entomology 59: 13-30
  • Liebhold, A.M, D.G. McCullough, L.M. Blackburn, SJ. Frankel, B.Von Holle and J.E.Aukema. 2013. A highly aggregated geographical distribution of forest pest invasions in the USA. Diversity and Distributions. In press.
  • Mercader, R.J., D.G. McCullough and J.M. Bedford. 201X. A comparison of girdled ash detection trees and baited artificial traps for emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) detection. Environmental Entomology. Submitted
  • Tobin, P.C., J.M. Kean, D.M. Suckling, D.G. McCullough, D.A. Herms and L.D. Stringer. 2013. Determinants of successful arthropod eradication programs. Biological Invasions. Accepted.
  • Wieferich, D., D. Hayes, D.G. McCullough. 2013. Evaluation of digital photography for quantifying beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) density on American beech trees. Journal of Economic Entomology. In press.
  • Graham, E.E., T.M. Poland, D.G. McCullough and J. G. Millar. 2012. A comparison of trap type and height for capturing cerambycid beetles (Coleoptera). Journal of Economic Entomology 105: 837-846.
  • McCullough, D.G. and R.J. Mercader. 2012. SLAM in an urban forest: evaluation of potential strategies to SLow Ash Mortality caused by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis). International Journal of Pest Management 58: 9-23.
  • Mercader, R.J., N.W. Siegert and D.G. McCullough. 2012. Estimating the influence of population density and dispersal behavior on the ability to detect and monitor Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) populations. Journal of Economic Entomology 105: 272-281.
  • Siegert, N.W., D.G. McCullough, M.M. Wheeler and A.E. Hajek. 2012. Evaluation of potential versus realized primary infection of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) by Entomophaga maimaiga (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales). Environmental Entomology 41: 1115-1124.
  • Suckling, D.M., D.G. McCullough, D.A. Herms and P.C. Tobin. 2012. Combining tactics to exploit Allee effects for eradication of alien insect populations. Forum article; Journal of Economic Entomology 105: 1-13.
  • Tanis, S.R. and D.G. McCullough. 2012. Differential persistence of blue ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata) and white ash (Fraxinus americana) following emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 42: 1542–1550.
  • Tanis, S. R., B. M. Cregg, D. Mota-Sanchez, D. G. McCullough, and T. M. Poland. 2012. Spatial and temporal distribution of trunk-injected 14C-imidacloprid in Fraxinus trees. Pest Management Science 68: 529-536.
  • Aukema, J.E., Leung B, Kovacs K., Chivers, C., Britton K.O., Englin J., Frankel S.J., Haight R.G., Holmes T.P., A. Liebhold, McCullough, D.G. and Von Holle, B. 2011. Economic impacts of non-native forest insects in the continental United States. PLoS ONE 6(9): e24587.
  • Kovacs, K., R.J. Mercader, R. Haight, N. Siegert; D.G. McCullough, A. Liebhold. 2011. The influence of satellite populations of emerald ash borer on projected economic damage in U.S. communities, 2010-2020. Environmental Management. 92:2170-2181.
  • McCullough, D.G., N.W. Siegert, T.M. Poland, S.J. Pierce and S.Z. Ahn. 2011. Effects of trap type, placement and ash distribution on emerald ash borer captures in a low density site. Environmental Entomology 40:1239-1252.
  • McCullough, D.G., T.M. Poland, A.C. Anulewicz, P. Lewis and D. Cappaert. 2011. Evaluation of Agrilus planipennis control provided by emamectin benzoate and two neonicotinoid insecticides, one & two seasons after treatment. Journal of Economic Entomology 104(5): 1599-1612.
  • Mercader, R.J., N.W. Siegert, A.M. Liebhold and D.G. McCullough. 2011. Estimating the effectiveness of three potential management options to slow the spread of emerald ash borer populations in localized outlier sites. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 41:254-264.
  • Mercader, R.J., N.W. Siegert, A.M. Liebhold and D.G. McCullough. 2011. Simulating the influence of the spatial distribution of host trees on the spread of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, in recently colonized sites. Population Biology 53:271-285.
  • Poland, T.M., D.G. McCullough and A.C. Anulewicz. 2011. Evaluation of an artificial trap for Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) incorporating olfactory and visual cues. Journal of Economic Entomology 104:517-531.
  • Tluczek, A.R., D.G. McCullough and T.M. Poland. 2011. Influence of host stress on emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adult density, development, and distribution in Fraxinus pennsylvanica trees. Environmental Entomology 40:357-366.
  • Wieferich, D., D. Hayes, D.G. McCullough and N. Schwalm. 2011. Distribution of beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind) in Michigan from 2004 to 2009. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 28:173-179.
  • Aukema, J. E., D.G. McCullough, B. Von Holle, A.M. Liebhold, K. Britton and S.J. Frankel. 2010. Historical accumulation of non-indigenous forest pests in the continental US. BioScience 60:886-897.
  • Cappaert, D. and D.G. McCullough. 2010 (2009). Phenology of Atanycolus cappaerti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a native parasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Great Lakes Entomologist 41:141-154.
  • Kovacs, K.F., R.G. Haight, D.G. McCullough, R.J. Mercader, N.W. Siegert and A.M. Liebhold. 2010. Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S. communities, 2009-2019. Ecological Economics 69:569-578.
  • Liebhold, A.M., T.T. Work, D.G. McCullough and J.F. Cavey. 2010. Response to Carey (2010). American Entomologist 56:164-165.
  • Siegert, N.W., D.G. McCullough, D.W. Williams, I. Fraser and T.M. Poland. 2010. Dispersal of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from discrete epicenters in two outlier sites. Environmental Entomology 39(2): 253-265.
  • McCullough, D.G., T. M. Poland, A.C. Anulewicz and D. Cappaert. 2009a. Emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) attraction to stressed or baited ash trees. Environmental Entomology 38: 1668-1679.
  • McCullough, D.G., T. M. Poland, D. Cappaert and A.C. Anulewicz. 2009b. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) attraction to ash trees stressed by girdling, herbicide and wounding. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 39:1331-1345.
  • Mercader, R., N.W. Siegert, A.M. Liebhold and D.G. McCullough. 2009. Dispersal of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, in newly colonized sites. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 11:421-424.
  • Mota-Sanchez, D., B. M. Cregg, D. G. McCullough, T. M. Poland, and R. M. Hollingworth. 2009. Distribution of trunk-injected 14C imidacloprid in ash trees and effects on emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults. Crop Protection 28: 655-661.
  • Siegert, N.W., D.G. McCullough, A.E. Hajek and J.A. Andresen. 2009 (2008). Effect of microclimatic conditions on primary transmission of the gypsy moth fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) in Michigan. The Great Lakes Entomologist 41:111-128.
  • Siegert, N.W., D.G. McCullough, R.C. Venette, A.E. Hajek and J.A. Andresen. 2009. Assessing the climatic potential for epizootics of the gypsy moth pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga in the North Central United States. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 39:1958-1970.
  • Anulewicz, A.C., D.G. McCullough, D.L. Cappaert and T.M. Poland. 2008. Host range of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America: results of multiple-choice field experiments. Environmental Entomology 37:230-241.
  • Lindell, C., D.G. McCullough, D. Cappaert, N.M. Apostolou and M.B. Roth. 2008. Factors influencing woodpecker predation on emerald ash borer. American Midland Naturalist 159:434-444.
  • Anulewicz, A.C., D.G. McCullough and D.L. Cappaert. 2007. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) density and canopy dieback in three North American ash species. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry 33:338-349.
  • McCullough, D.G. and N.W. Siegert. 2007. Estimating potential emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) populations using ash inventory data. Journal of Economic Entomology 100: 1577-1586.
  • McCullough, D.G., T. M. Poland, D. Cappaert, E.L. Clark, I. Fraser, V. Mastro, S. Smith and C. Pell. 2007. Effects of chipping, grinding and heat on survival of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera:Buprestidae) in chips. Journal of Economic Entomology 100(4): 1304-1315.
  • Anulewicz, A.C., D.G. McCullough and D.L. Miller. 2006. (Published 2007). Host range studies of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): no-choice bioassays. Great Lakes Entomologist 39:99-112.
  • McCullough, D.G., T.T. Work, J.F. Cavey, A.T. Liebhold and D. Marshall. 2006. Interceptions of nonindigenous plant pests at U.S. ports of entry and border crossings over a 17 year period. Biological Invasions 8:611-630.
  • Poland, T.M. and D.G. McCullough. 2006. Emerald ash borer: invasion of the urban forest and the threat to North America’s ash resource. Journal of Forestry 104(3):118-124.
  • Liebhold, A.M., T.T. Work, D.G. McCullough and J.F. Cavey. 2006. Airline baggage as a pathway for alien insect species entering the United States. American Entomologist 52:48-54.
  • Cappaert, D., D.G. McCullough, T.M. Poland and N.W. Siegert. 2005. Emerald ash borer in North America: a research and regulatory challenge. American Entomologist 51(3):152-165.
  • Fondren, K.M. and D.G. McCullough. 2005. Phenology, natural enemies and horticultural oil for control of pine needle scale (Chionapsis heterophylla) (Fitch) (Homoptera: Diaspidae) on Christmas tree plantations. Journal of Economic Entomology 98(5):1603-1613.
  • Kim, J.W., L.M. Matuana and D.G. McCullough. 2005. Emerald ash borer infested ash trees as raw material for wood-based composites. Forest Products Journal 55(11):89-92.
  • Work, T.T., D.G. McCullough, J.F. Cavey and R. Komsa. 2005. Approach rate of nonindigenous insect species into the United States through cargo pathways. Biological Invasions 7:323-332.
  • Fondren, K.M., D.G. McCullough and A.J. Sommers. 2004. Insect predators and augmentative biological control of balsam twig aphid (Mindarus abietinus) (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Christmas tree plantations. Environmental Entomology 33:1652-1661.
  • Hajek, A.E., N.W. Siegert, M.M. Wheeler and D.G. McCullough. 2004. Using bioassays to estimate the abundance of Entomophaga maimaiga resting spores in soil. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 86:61-64.
  • Fondren, K.M. and D.G. McCullough. 2003. Phenology and density of balsam twig aphid (Mindarus abietinus Koch) (Homoptera: Aphididae) in relation to bud break, shoot damage and value of fir Christmas trees. Journal of Economic Entomology 96:1760-1769.
  • Siegert, N.W. and D.G. McCullough. 2003. Colonization of Scotch, red and jack pine logs by Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Michigan pine stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33:2238-2244. 
  • National Research Council, Board of Agriculture and Natural Resources, National Academy of Science. 2002. Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. 198 pp.
  • Kennedy, A.A. and D. G. McCullough. 2002. Phenology of the exotic pine shoot beetle (Tomicus piniperda [L.]) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in relation to native bark beetles and natural enemies in red pine stands. Environmental Entomology 31:261-272.
  • Work, T.T. and D.G. McCullough. 2002. Lepidopteran community response to gypsy moth outbreaks is robust to guild reclassification: a reply to comments of Summerville and Crist. Environmental Entomology 31:584-587.
  • Ludwig, S., L. Lazarus, D.G. McCullough, K. Hoover, S. Montero and J.C. Sellmer. 2002. Methods to examine host tree susceptibility to the Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis. Journal of Environmental Horticulture 20:175-180.
  • Siegert, N.W. and D.G. McCullough. 2001. Survey of shoot damage caused by the exotic pine shoot beetle in Michigan pine stands. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 18:101-109.
  • Siegert, N.W. and D.G. McCullough. 2001. Host preference of pine shoot beetle (Tomicus piniperda [L.]) (Coloeptera: Scolytidae) parent and progeny adults. Canadian Entomologist 133:343-353.
  • Andresen J. A., D.G. McCullough, B.E. Potter, N. Koller, L.S. Bauer, D.P. Lusch and C.W. Ramm. 2001. Effects of winter temperatures on gypsy moth egg masses in the Great Lakes region. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 110(2):85-100.
  • McCullough, D.G. 2000. A review of factors affecting the population dynamics of jack pine budworm (Choristoneura pinus pinus Freeman). Population Ecology 42:243-256.
  • Work, T.T. and D.G. McCullough. 2000. Effects of gypsy moth invasion on Lepidopteran communities in two forest ecosystems in northern Michigan. Environmental Entomology 29:884-900.
  • Conway, B.E., D.G. McCullough and L.A. Leefers. 1999. Long-term effects of jack pine budworm outbreaks on the growth of jack pine trees in Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29:1510-1517.
  • Buss, L.J., D.G. McCullough and C.W. Ramm. 1999. Evaluation of three egg mass survey methods in relation to gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) defoliation in Michigan. Environmental Entomology 28:485-495.
  • Conway, B.E., L.A. Leefers, and D.G. McCullough. 1999. Financial evaluation of a jack pine budworm outbreak and implications for management. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29:382-392.
  • McCullough, D.G. and C.S. Sadof. 1998. Evaluation of an integrated management and compliance program for Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in pine Christmas tree fields. Forum Article, Journal of Economic Entomology 91:785-795.
  • McCullough, D.G., R.A. Haack and W.H. McLane. 1998. Control of Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), the pine shoot beetle, in pine stumps and logs. Journal of Economic Entomology 91:492-499.
  • McCullough, D.G., R.A. Werner and D. Neumann. 1998. Fire and insects in northern and boreal forests of North America. Annual Review of Entomology 43:107-127.
  • Work, T.T., D.G. McCullough and W.J. Mattson. 1998. Moth and carabid beetle species associated with two ecological landtype phases in northern Michigan. USDA Forest Service, North Central Research Station, General Technical Report NC-201. 25 pp.
  • Smitley, D., J. Andresen, R. Priest, R. Mech and D. McCullough. 1998. Winter mortality of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) eggs in Michigan. Environmental Entomology 27:700-708.
  • Eliason, E.A. and D.G. McCullough. 1997. Survival and fecundity of three insects reared on four varieties of Scotch pine Christmas trees. Journal of Economic Entomology 90:1598-1608.
  • Kouki, J., D.G. McCullough and L.D. Marshall. 1997. Effects of forest stand and edge characteristics on the vulnerability of jack pine stands to jack pine budworm (Choristoneura pinus pinus) (Lep., Tortricidae) damage. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27:1765-1772.
  • Papp Hermes, C., D.G. McCullough, L.S. Bauer, R.A. Haack, D.L. Miller, and N.R. DuBois. 1997. Susceptibility of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki used for gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) suppression in Michigan. Great Lakes Entomologist 30:125-141.
  • McCullough, D.G., L.D. Marshall, L. Buss and J. Kouki. 1996. Relating jack pine budworm damage to stand attributes in northern Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26:2180-2190.
  • Katovich, S.A., D.G. McCullough and R.A. Haack. 1996. Ecology and management of yellowheaded spruce sawfly. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report General Technical Report NC-179. 24 p.
  • Papp Hermes, C., D.G. McCullough, D.L. Miller, L.S. Bauer and R.A. Haack. 1996. Laboratory rearing of Lycaeides melissa samuelis, an endangered butterfly in Michigan. Great Lakes Entomologist 29(2):63-75.
  • McCullough, D.G. and D. Smitley. 1995. Evaluation of insecticides to reduce maturation feeding by Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Scotch pine. Journal of Economic Entomology 88(3):693-699.
  • Marshall, L.D. and D.G. McCullough. 1995. Pest management decision support systems: a new challenge for forest entomologists. The Forestry Chronicle 71(3):1-3.
  • Weseloh, R., Bernon, G., L. Butler, R. Fuester, D. McCullough, and F. Stehr. 1995. Forest releases of the gypsy moth predatory beetle, Calasoma sycophanta L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae) near the leading edge of gypsy moth infestation. Environmental Entomology 24:1713-1717.
  • McCullough, D.G. 1994. In Michigan, gypsy moth management means education. Journal of Forestry 92(10):17-21.
  • Volney, W.J.A. and D.G. McCullough. 1994. Jack pine budworm population behaviour in northwestern Wisconsin. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24:502-510.
  • Carlson-Cummings, J.E., M. Guthmiller and D. McCullough. 1993. Incidence and severity of butternut canker in Wisconsin in 1976 and 1992. Phytopathology 83:11.
  • McCullough, D.G. and L.D. Marshall. 1993. Jack pine budworm decision support system: a case study. Forest Resources Systems (FORS) Institute, Compiler 11:14-20.
  • McCullough, D.G., P.D. Swedenborg, and H.M. Kulman. 1993. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on monoterpenes of jack pine seedlings and weight gain of jack pine budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Great Lakes Entomologist 26:137-149.
  • Carlson-Cummings, D.G. McCullough and D.F. Grigal. 1992. Forest health: technical paper for a generic environmental impact statement on timber harvesting and forest management in Minnesota. Technical review and final report. Minnesota Environmental Quality Board and Jaakko Poyry Consulting. 205 pp. 
  • Grier, C.C., K.J. Elliott, and D.G. McCullough. 1992. Biomass distribution and productivity of Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma woodlands of north-central Arizona. Forest Ecology and Management 50:331-350.
  • McCullough, D.G. and H.M. Kulman. 1991. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on suitability of young jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) as a host for jack pine budworm (Choristoneura pinus pinus Freeman). Canadian Journal of Forest Research 21:1447-1458.
  • McCullough, D.G. and H.M. Kulman. 1991. Differences in foliage quality of young jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) on burned and clearcut sites: effects on jack pine budworm (Choristoneura pinus pinus Freeman). Oecologia 87:135-145.
  • Craig, T.P., M.R. Wagner, D.G. McCullough and D.P. Frantz. 1991. Effect of experimentally altered plant moisture stress on the performance of Neodiprion sawflies. Forest Ecology and Management 39:247-261.
  • McCullough, D.G. and M.R. Wagner. 1987. Ability of four vigor estimation techniques to evaluate trenched and watered ponderosa pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 17:138-145.
  • McCullough, D.G. and M.R. Wagner. 1987. Influence of watering and trenching ponderosa pine on the feeding success of Neodiprion autumnalis. Oecologia 71:382-387.
  • Wagner, M.R., D.G. McCullough and J.M. DiMatteo. 1986. Life history of Neodiprion fulviceps (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Dipriondiae): a ponderosa pine feeding sawfly. Proc. Entomological Society of Washington 88(2):221-226.

Major extension publications - recent

  • McCullough, D.G. and R. Usborne. 2003-Current. Direct and oversee the national emerald ash borer website:; includes photos, information related to EAB and ash tree identification, research updates, control options for homeowners and landscapers, regulations, bulletins and many other pages. 
  • McCullough, D.G., R. Usborne and A. Ziegler. 2010-Current. Multi-agency website provides information, interactive map viewers, trap and detection tree data, outreach materials and other features related to the SLAM (SL.ow M.ortality) Pilot Project in the Upper Peninsula.
  • McCullough, D.G. 2013. Will we kiss our ash goodbye? Featured article; American Forests 118: 16-23.
  • Hahn, J., D.A. Herms and D.G. McCullough. 2011. Frequently asked questions regarding potential side effects of systemic insecticides used to control emerald ash borer. Multi-state extension bulletin. 4 pages. Available at
  • Herms, D.A., D.G. McCullough, D.R. Smitley, C.S. Sadof, R.C. Williamson and P.L. Nixon. 2009. Insecticide options for protecting ash trees from emerald ash borer. National IPM Center, Illinois. 12 p. Available for download on the national website (
  • McCullough, D.G. and T.M. Poland. 2009. Using double-decker traps to detect emerald ash borer. Developed and distributed as a pdf on the national website 10 p.
  • McCullough, D.G. and N.W. Siegert. 2008. Using girdled trees effectively for emerald ash borer detection, delimitation and survey. Developed and distributed as a pdf on the national EAB website at: 6 p.
  • Cappaert, D. and D.G. McCullough. 2008. The case to date for biological control of emerald ash borer by a native parasitoid, Atanycolus sp. Developed and distributed as a pdf on the national EAB website at: 4 p.
  • McCullough, D.G., S. Evans, R. Usborne. 2007-2008. Debarking ash trees for emerald ash borer detection. DVD of multi-state workshops held for survey crews from state and federal agencies, tribal government and universities involved with emerald ash borer detection and survey. 1 hour. 

Recent book chapters

  • Herms, D.A. and D.G. McCullough. 2012. Emerald ash borer ecology and management. In: The Encyclopedia of Pest Management. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA. In press
  • Herms, D.A. and D.G. McCullough. 2011. Pesticides and insect eradication. p. 528-535, In: The Encyclopedia of Invasive Introduced Species. D. Simberloff and M. Rejmanek, eds. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA.
  • Liebhold, A.M. and D.G. McCullough. 2011. Forest insects. p.238-241. In: The Encyclopedia of Invasive Introduced Species. D. Simberloff and M. Rejmanek, eds. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA.
  • Katovich, S. and D.G. McCullough. 2010. SLAM: SLowing Ash Mortality. Overview of strategies and options.

Pruning tree

Pruning up the tree at the Broad Museum, December 2012.